It can be distinguish several landscape units. Most of the analyzed elements not present exceptional characteristics, but are common in the region where is the landscape unit analyzed.
One of the landscape units is constituted by the lower alluvial terrace of the Duero River which occupies an area of 405 ha. In this landscape unit is nailed the project and is characterized by a plain relief devoted to irrigated agriculture. Another landscape unit corresponds to two areas occupied by oaks cleared more or less degraded, located within the viewshed defined in the alluvial terrace.
The restored land due to gravel pits holdings made in past decades is another scenic drive. It is situated between the Duero Canal and the railway abandoned. It is an environment very different from the rest because it has an artificial lake and recreational conditioning (golf course, a small jetty, etc.) for private use, with an extensive plantation of poplars in the north to the Duero Canal.
Finally, another landscape unit corresponds to the second terrace of Duero River and grounds that have a slope located immediately north to the escarpment of the moor. This second terrace is much narrower than the first and connects to the north, by a gentle slope, with ridged forms and wasteland, consisting of Tertiary detrital material.
The study area is located in the "Iberian Massif," in the unit known as "Duero Basin". The materials appearing correspond to rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary with sub-horizontal arrangement and deposited in continental regime.
In the northern area bordering the Duero Canal, outcrop the Tertiary materials (Miocene substrate arkosic) constituted of red and greenish gray arkosic sludge, among which are interspersed small channels of coarse and fine arkoses.
To the south, on the Miocene arkoses appear Quaternary coatings. The dominant material level terraces are mainly quartzite gravel with sandy-silty matrix with granitoids and limestone gravel in proportion below 10%. In the southern third of the area, the aeolian sands overlying the gravel, becoming the dominant surface substrate.
The area of operation is characterized by a Mediterranean-continental climate, with extreme temperatures (very low in winter and high in summer) and low rainfall (although somewhat more abundant in spring and autumn). The average annual temperature is 12.3 ⁰C, with an annual average maximum temperature of 18.6 ⁰C and 6.2 ⁰C average minimum temperatures. It has an average annual rainfall of 435 mm and about 61 days of frost per year.
The area of study is situated in soils moderately evolved (Cambisols calcium) characterized by developing a horizon of change or alteration, which gives rise to the texture and structure are quite different from the material of the base, therefore presents horizons moderately defined, there was also a surface layer with a high organic matter content. Developing fersiallitic red soils on the terraces (and brown soils prone Mediterranean red soils) indicates a Mediterranean climate, cold and wet at the edges of the basin (leached brown soils in southern braunerde tend to wet).
Surface water: South of the study area is the River Duero running in the range 685-687 m. The surface of the Duero Basin up to the nearest station to the target area is 12.740 km2 and the average annual
contribution is 90 mm. The greatest contribution months are those between November and April.
According to studies by the "Duero River Basin", around 30-35% of the total discharge of the slow Duero contribution comes from aquifers of the basin, which will mean its baseflow. There is a high correlation between annual precipitation and mean annual flow of the Duero, as it passes through this town, for the 30 hydrological years between 1974-75 and 2003-04.
The study plot bordered on the north Duero Canal built for urban supply. The average flow is 4.2 m3/s, but may vary because in summer due to irrigation demands, the flow rate is increased to about 6 m3 the rest of the year usually takes about 2 m3/s. There are significant losses along its route, especially when it runs on permeable materials that are impossible to quantify.
Underground water: There are two levels of aquifers in the area: a level upper aquifer, compound of
a quaternary detrital consisting of gravel, quartzite sand and silt; and a level lower aquifer consists mainly of sand and Miocene arkosic mud, with higher content of silt, both aquifers being disconnected.
The unconfined aquifer on the terrace exploited, has a water table at a depth of between 3.5 and 5 m. The basement arkoses form a semi-confined aquifer extension more important, though potentially limited. This Tertiary detrital aquifer consists of alternating channels of silty-clay and sandy-silt levels that become more powerful from the 50 m deep and in some polls, at depths between 100 and 150 m reach flows provide the order of 20 l/s.
The upper aquifer level lies where the gravel horizon is exploited, is disconnected hydraulically general basic level of the groundwater in the study area.
This base level is defined by the river Duero, which corresponds to the discharge limit of the groundwater flow of the Miocene multilayer aquifer system. The shallow aquifer is of little importance for the extraction of groundwater and from a point of view of the chemical quality is greatly affected by nitrates due to the effect of farming.
Currently characterized by the existence of farm plots, most irrigation, such as corn (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). There are also utilized for grazing livestock, with the presence of the following species:
Agropyron repens; Arena sterilis; Bromus erectus; Eryngium campestre; Festuca elatior; Festuca ovina
Medicago lupulina; Papaver rhoeas; Poa bulbosa; Saxifraga granulata; Trifolium repens
There are isolated patches of oak in marginal areas or in boundaries of farms and numerous grasslands, accompanying the oak are scattered brooms (Cytisus scoparius Link.) and juniper (Juniperus phoenicea L.). Plant communities are also found on roadsides and wasteland (ruderal vegetation), in places frequented by humans and fallow vegetation, cultivated area or abandoned fields (arvense vegetation). Can find the following species:
Achillea millefolium Adonis aestivalis Aegilops ovate Agropyrum repens Althea officinalis Amaranthus albus Amaranthus blitoides Amaranthus deflexus Amaranthus hybridus Amaranthus retroflexus
Ambrosia artemisiaefolia Anacyclus clavatus Anagallis arvensis Anchusa itálica Anthemis arvensis
Anthemis cotula Anthemis nobilis Arenaria cerastioides Arenaria serpyllifolia Asparagus acutifolius
Asperula arvensis Atriplex hastatus Atriplex patulus Borago officinalis Bromus maximus Bromus mollis
Bromus squarosus Calendula arvensis Capsella bursa-pastoris Centaurea calcitrapa Cerastium glomeratum Chamaelina sativa Chelidonium majus Chenopodium album Chenopodium murale Chenopodium opulifolium Chondrilla juncea Chrysantemun myconis Chrysantemun segetum
Cichorium intybus Cirsium arvensis Cirsium palustre Convolvulus arvensis Convolvulus sepium
Coronilla scorpioides Coronopus procumbens Cuscuta epithimun Cynodon dactylon press.
Cyperus rotundos Dactylis glomerata Daucus carota Digitaria sanguinalis Diplotaxis muralis
Echium plantagineum Erigeron acris Erigeron canadense Erigeron crispus Erodium cicutarium
Eruca sativa Eruca vesicaria Euphorbia serrata Foeniculum vulgare Fumaria capreolata Fumaria officialis Fumaria spicata Galium aparine Galium tricorne Geranium disectum Geranium molle
Heliotropium europeaum Hypecoum procumbens Juncus bufonius Lactuca saligua Lactuca scariola
Lactuca virosa Lamium amplexicaule Lamium purpureum Lathyrus aphaca Lavatera cretica Lepidium draba Linarea spartea Linaria hirta Lithospermun arvense Lolium multiflorum Lolium perenne Lotus corniculatus Lupinus angustifolius Malva micaensis Marrabium vulgare Medicago arabica
There are specimens of poplars (Populus nigra L.) and numerous Salicaceae as Salix atrocinerea Brot., also listed several examples of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and some almond (Amygdalus communis L.) at the edges of the road.
The fauna located in the area is limited by agricultural crops, exploitation of aggregates and relative proximity to roads. Bellow exposed the existing species with the conservation status as "Atlas and Red Book of Endangered Species".
- Critically Endangered (CR): the taxon is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.
- Endangered (EN): the taxon is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.
- Vulnerable (VU): the taxon has a high risk of extinction in the wild.
- Near Threatened (NT): the taxon has been evaluated and does not currently meet the criteria for the categories Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable, but it is close to satisfy or possibly do in the near future.
- Least Concern (LC): the taxon, abundant and widely distributed, has been evaluated and meets none of the criteria that define the four categories above.
- Data Deficient (DD): status pending assignment to a category, waiting for new studies provide sufficient information (Masó, 2011).
Invertebrates: can be found in the area dragonflies and water beetles adapted to water stops as ditiscos (Dytiscus marginalis), shoemakers (Gerris lacustris) and water scorpions (Nepa cinerea), which make greater use the presence of a more specific to their own ecology.
Besides the abundance of Diptera and Hymenoptera flying over the area, as well as throughout the country.
Amphibians: The species described below are present in the study area as the Information Server Amphibians and Reptiles of Spain (SIARE), 2012, of Spanish Herpetological Association. Although only found Pelophylax perezi individuals, it is likely that other species are present as Salamandra salamandra, Lisotriton boscai and Bufo bufo.
Pleurodeles waltl (NT) Triturus marmoratus (LC) Alytes obstetricans (NT) Bufo calamita (LC) Discoglossus galganoi (LC) Hyla arbórea (NT) Pelobates cultripes (NT) Pelophylax perezi (LC)
Pelodytes punctatus (LC)
Reptiles: The species of reptiles that are described below are present in the study area as the Information Server Amphibians and Reptiles of Spain (SIARE), 2012, of Spanish Herpetological Association, although very rare in the area.
Acanthodactylus erythrurus (LC) Blanus cinereus (LC) Chalcides bedriagai (NT) Malpolon monspessulanus (LC) Mauremys leprosa (VU) Natrix maura (LC) Natrix natrix (LC) Podarcis hispanica (LC) Psammodromus algirus (LC) Psammodromus hispanicus (LC) Rhinechis scalaris (LC) Tarentola mauritanica (LC) Timon lepidus (NT)
Birds: The birds in the area vary throughout the year, there are species that come to spend the winter on the peninsula (wintering) as lapwings (Vanellus vanellus), thrushes (Turdus sp.) and finches as the siskin (Carduelis spinus) and chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs). In summer, there are plenty of passerines like warblers (Acrocephalus sp.), wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe), flycatchers and shrike (Lanius senator).
There are resident species whose presence extends throughout the year, highlight the starlings
(Sturnus sp.) are very common skylarks as the Alauda (Alauda arvensis), larks (Galerida sp.) and woodlark (Lullula arborea) or finches as the goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis), or great tit (Parus major), etc.
Because of the proximity to the river Duero and the artificial lake created as restoration of adjacent gravel pit, appear flying overhead mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), gray heron (Ardea cinerea), coots (Fulica atra), etc. Given the diversity of habitats that alternate, is an interesting area for game species such as red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa), common quail (Coturnix coturnix)wood pigeon (Columba palumbus), and corvids such as the magpie (Pica pica), carrion crow (Corvus corone). Fly overhead, a variety of small and medium-sized raptor that has a good hunting ground in the farmland. There are diurnal raptors as the red kite (Milvus milvus), black kite (Milvus nigrans), booted eagle (Hieratus pennatus), common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Of the owls, we review only the little owl (Athene noctua). Below are cited almost all species that nest in the geographical territory and most of those that are sighted at some point this year.
Acrocephalus scirpaceus Alauda arvensis Alectoris rufa Anas platyrhynchos Anthus campestris Ardea cinérea Buteo buteo Carduelis cannabina Carduelis carduelis Carduelis chloris Carduelis spinus Certhia brachydactyla Cettia cetti Ciconia ciconia Columba livia Columba oenas Columbus palumbus Cortunix cortunix Corvus corone Corvus monedula Delichon urbica Erithacus rubecula Falco tinnunculus Ficedula hypoleuca Fringilla coelebs Fulica atra Galerida cristata Galerida theklae Hieraaetus pennatus Hippolais polyglotta Hirundo rustica Lanius meridionalis (NT) Lanius senator (NT) Lullula arbórea Luscinia megarhynchos Melanocorypha calandria Miliaria calandra Milvus migrans (NT) Milvus milvus (EN) Motacilla alba Motacilla cinérea Motacilla flava Muscicapa striata Oenanthe hispanica (NT) Oenanthe oenanthe Otus scops Parus ater Parus caerulens Parus major Passer domesticus Passer montanus
Petronia petronia Phylloscopus bonelli Phylloscopus collybita Pica pica Prunella modularis Pterocles orientalis (VU) Remiz pendulinus Riparia riparia Serinus serinus Streptopelia decaocto Sturnus unicolor
Sturnus vulgaris Sylvia atricapilla Sylvia borin Sylvia communis Sylvia melanocephala Troglodytes troglodytes Turdus merula Turdus philomelos Turdus viscivorus Tyto alba Upupa epops Vanellus vanellus.
Mammals: Among mammals, include the presence of fox (Vulpes vulpes), lagomorphs as hares (Lepus granatensis) and rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) more abundant in the past. Probably the presence of mustelids like weasels (Mustela nivalis) and secure the vole (Microtus arvalis). The species listed below are those whose actual distribution in the province of Valladolid, includes the study area being analyzed.
Apodemus sylvaticus Arvicola sapidus Canis familiaris Crocidura russula Eliomys quercinus Erinaceus europaeus Felis catus Lepus granatensis Meles meles Microtus arvalis Microtus lusitanicus Mus spretus
Mustela nivalis Mustela putorius Neomys anomalus Oryctolagus cuniculus Rattus norvegicus Rattus rattus Sus scrofa Vulpes vulpes
Ongoing nature projects:
Currently a Biodiversity Master Plan is in place and several actions are being implemented annually in collaboration with the University of Salamanca and with the Fundación Tormes-EB (NGO).