Two hives at one reference locality were measured by GSM scale from September 2017. We can recognize last nectar collection of summer bees, snow covering hives and two cleansing flights. It is also visible that hive 1 contains bigger bee colony than hive 2. Bigger colony consumption was slower due to better isolation of produced heat in the colony centre. What is a real consumption of sugar by colony in winter? See our chart.
It is in average 1–1.5kg per month, 33–50g per day, 1.4–2.1g per hour and 0.4–0.6mg per second. If we expect that the honey contains about 80% of sugar and 1g of the sugar contains 17kJ of energy, the power of wintering honey bee colony is about 5–8W! It is like one LED light in your room. Fifteen bee colonies (about 20–30kg of bees) produce the same heat as one human body.